The price of wheat in Newham, London – Ramadan, 1438 AH (2017 CE)

This report outlines the price of wheat in Newham (London) during Ramadan, 1438 (July, 2017) and the subsequent recommendation for the rate of sadaqat al-fitr and fidya.

The recommended price for sadaqat al-fitr and fidya in Newham is £2.90. It should not be lower than £2.25. This is based on the retail price for 2.32 kilogams of wheat.

This price is specific to Newham. The price is low due to a few big warehouses. The normal price for 2kg starts around £3.00 which is common around London – other localities in London have reported around £3.50. Localities may differ and so one should consult the local ulama in their area. Wifaqul Ulama has set the benchmark price nationally in the UK at £2.00 based on 1.667kg as the standard.

One may give sadaqat al-fitr anytime during Ramadan and if eligible must pay before Eid Salah. The ruling and recommendation are in accordance to the Hanafi fiqh. People following other approaches should consult their respective scholars.

Rationale

The ahnaf allow for the payment of sadaqat al-fitr in cash.1 This value must be calculated from the retail price of wheat, barley, dates or raisins available in the giver’s locality without incurring added cost. Hence, bulk or stock market pricing will not suffice unless its value is higher than the local price.

In England, wheat is used as the chosen measure as it is often the cheapest. The ahnaf state that half a sa’ be given for wheat or its value in price.  In principle, the pricing may be done using the derivative of wheat such as flour or cereal so long as it is not cheaper than raw wheat. For a detail discussion, read ‘The standard for pricing sadaqat al-fitr‘ by the erudite shaykh, Mufti Umar Faruq Lawharwi (may Allah Almighty protect him and raise his rank).

Research by notable muftiyan have suggested differing weights which form the volume of half a sa’; 1.575, 1.590, 1.636, 1.64 and 2.32 kilograms. The majority of scholars opt between 1.5 and 1.7 kg. This is a barley based measure. Accordingly,  half a sa’ is a volume which can be filled with 1.7 kg of husked barley. Some, citing caution, have chosen 2.32 kg of wheat based on the finding of the Late Mufti A’zam Rashid Ahmad Ludhyanwi (may Allah have mercy upon him). Mufti Umar Faruq Lawharwi recommends 1.75 kilograms of wheat for sadaqat al-fitr . There is ofcourse no restriction to giving more.

Based on the current research, 1.75 kg is a reasonable and objective recommendation which is also relatively cautious.

The reason for opting to choose the higher than 1.6 kg is because barley is denser than wheat. In recent tests, we found the difference to be around 30 to 35 percent. For instance, a container which can hold 1.6kg of husk barley should be able to hold up to 2.1kg of wheat. Mufti Rashid Ahmad Ludhyanwi put the factor closer to 20 percent which is in keeping with Mufti Umar Faruq ‘s suggestion. Hence, when measuring wheat it may be better to use the weight given by Mufti Rashid Ahmad Ludhyanwi which is 2.32 kg. This is the reasonably cautious and in the matter of charity, the Shariah gives that which benefits the poor preference. However, if one chooses to pay with the lower measure it will be permissible.

Currently, the price of wheat flour cannot be used as a measure as it is significantly cheaper than whole wheat in London. One can purchase 1.5kg of wheat flour from Tesco for 55p compared to whole wheat, the retail price of which is stated in the table below.

At present, the price of bulgar wheat can be used as it is generally more expensive than whole wheat. The average price for 1kg is £2.45 compared to £1.58 for whole wheat. The big retailers such as Sainsbury, Tesco, and Morrisons sell 1kg bulgar wheat for £2.30. However, I found one shop, Cost Saver in East Ham, which sells which sells 1kg Bulgar wheat for £1.43, hence, this price will not be allowed.

It is not necessary for the poor to actually buy the wheat but it should be possible for them to buy the wheat if they so chose.

Retail price

I visited most of the groceries in Romford Road, Barking Road, High Street North, High Street South, Plashet Grove, Plashet Road, Katherine Road, Green Street, Upton Lane,  and Woodgrange Road. These major roads intersect the electoral wards in Newham which have a significant Muslim population.

ShopPriceQuantity£ per KG
Mina Store£2.252000g£1.13
Swathi Cash & Carry£1.691500g£1.13
Ali Cash and Carry£1.751500g£1.17
Sakthi Cash & Carry£1.791500g£1.19
Seelans Superstores£1.991500g£1.33
Himalaya Food Store£2.291500g£1.53
Mina Store£0.65500g£1.30
T S B Cash & Carry£0.69500g£1.38
Kapadokya Food Centre£1.391000g£1.39
Roman Express£1.391000g£1.39
Sakthi Cash & Carry£0.79500g£1.58
Madina Store£0.79500g£1.58
Madina Store£2.491500g£1.66
Bereket£1.691000g£1.69
Seelan Superstore£0.99500g£1.98
Swathi Cash & carry£0.99500g£1.98
B B Fatima£0.99500g£1.98
Toor Store£2.291500g£1.99
Holland & Barretts£1.49500g£2.98

I have not found any place in the borough where they sell wheat loosely. Rather they are sold in packages of 500g, 900g, 1000g, 1500g and 2000g.

So irrespective if one chose the measure 1.575, 1.590, 1.636, 1.64 or 1.75 kg, to actually enable purchase, one will have to give either 1.5kg or 2kg as the exact amount is not available locally. In consideration of the poor, I chose to round upwards.

The cheapest I was actually able to purchase 2kg was £2.25.

The cheapest I was actually able to purchase 2.5kg was £2.90

Mina Store sells 2kg for £2.25 and 500g for £0.65.2 This is the cheapest I found. The stores in High Street North and Romford Road (Manor Park) have the best prices.

As a way of comparison. The average price for whole wheat is £1.58

Many choose to extrapolate the price based on the cheapest price of 1 kilogram. Mina store sells 500g for £0.65 so 1 kilogram will be £1.30 which is the cheapest one can actually buy. Then multiply it with 1.75 or 2.32, the cost of 1.75kg of wheat will be £2.28 and the cost of 2.32kg will be £3.02. This is problematic as we have seen that one can purchase 2.5kg for £2.90. To alleviate this problem, it is may be more prudent to extrapolate only when needed as is shown next.

Alternatively, one can take the price of 2kg of wheat which is available for £2.25 and extrapolate the remainder using a 500g bag. To reach 2.32 kilograms we are 320g short which is, in turn, is 64% of a 500g bag. Consequently, 320g of wheat will be £0.42. So the sadaqat al-fitr for 2.32kg with this method will be £2.67.4 Similarly, to calculate using 1.75kg of wheat, one may multiply a 500g bag by 3.5 which is £2.28 as before.

It may be prudent to reconsider as to whether the price should be extrapolated as it is not practical to actually buy it for that price. Allah knows best.

Bulk and market price

The bulk or stock market price will not be used for calculating the price of sadaqat al-fitr or any other financial obligations required as an ibadat. However, for the sake of completeness, I will mention it here.

In the European stock markets, the price of wheat is stated per tonne (1000 kg).

The price for July (2017) is £142.95 per tonne. So, the price for wheat is assumed to be £0.15 per kilogram.

In the United States, the price is given per bushel. A bushel of wheat is 60 pounds (27.2155 kg). A bushel of wheat is expected to yield 42 pounds (19.0509 kg) of flour.5

In terms of buying in bulk, I could not find big bags of wheat in the locality. BuyWholeFoodsOnline Ltd sells a 25kg bag for £28.55 plus £4.99 for postage. Based on this, 1kg will be £0.88. So if one were to extrapolate  1.75 kg or 2.32 kg, it will be £1.53 and £2.03 respectively. When one add the postage it will be £6.52 and £7.02. However, this is a nonsensical calculation as in reality it not possible to get that price unless the poor is given more than £30.

————-

Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
26 Ramadan 1438
21 June 2017

———————–

 

1. This may not be allowed in the other schools of fiqh. Please seek advice from the qualified scholars respectively if you don’t adhere to the Hanafi school.

2. I recently visited Mina Store and they had a discount on whole wheat. They were selling 2kg whole wheat for £1.65. Hence, added with 500g for £0.65, one can purchase 2.5kg for £2.20. If one paid that amount, sadaqat al-fitr or fidya will suffice. It may be wise to check that the discount is continuing before one adopts this price.

3.

4 Calculated 65*0.64

5. An acre, optimally on average, can yield around 60 bushels (3600 pounds or 1632.933kg).  In the middle ages, an acre was the size of land which one man can plough with an ox in a day. In metric units, it is 4046.86 square meters. In layman’s term, it is 60% the size of a football pitch, 16 tennis courts or a car park with a capacity for 150 cars.

 

Further Reading

Lawharwi, Mft. Umar Faruq. (2015). The standard for pricing sadaqat al-fitr. (Nawhami, Muhammad Saifur Rahman, Trans.). Islamic Studies Bulletin (DIBAJ), Issue 4. Available at http://uloom.com/dibaj/article/150716502

Shabbir, Mufti Yusuf. (May, 2017). Sadaqah al-Fitr Calculation for Blackburn. Nawadir. Accessed (21 June 2017) https://nawadir.org/2017/05/29/sadaqah-al-fitr-calculation-for-blackburn/

Nawhami, Muhammad Saifur Rahman. (2012). The economic classes in Islam. Islamic Studies Bulletin (DIBAJ), Issue 1. Available at http://uloom.com/dibaj/article/120811501

 

Cite: 170621501

Muslims in marginal seats – Election 2015

The United Kingdom is holding its general election on the 8 June 2017. Irrespective of one’s view regarding participating in elections or party politics, it cannot be denied that the Muslim voice matters. The 2011 census reports there to be 2,706,066 Muslims which is 4.8% of the population. Much of this population is concentrated in certain areas, hence, the likely impact on determining a seat in higher.This becomes particularly pertinent when one considers the current government has a thin majority of only six seats although the working majority is around 17. There are 650 seats. One seat belongs to the speaker. So to win a majority, a party requires 325 seats.

The list below is based on the General Election Results 2015. A marginal seat here is a constituency with a majority that is lower than ten percent. The list identifies constituencies where the Muslims outnumber the majority required to win an election in an area. Pay particular attention to the marginal seats where the influence is particularly significant.

Please scroll left if you cannot see all six columns. Click here to download the full data file.

Constituencies with more Muslims than the Electoral majority

ConstituencyPartyMajority %Majority #Muslim #Muslim +/-
GowerCON0.0627357330
Derby NorthCON0.094133143273
City of ChesterLAB0.1893888795
Croydon CentralCON0.3116568216656
Ealing Central and ActonLAB0.542741595915685
Ynys MônLAB0.6622925021
Vale of ClwydCON0.67237396159
Brentford and IsleworthLAB0.814651602515560
Bury NorthCON0.8437871356757
Morley and OutwoodCON0.87422822400
HalifaxLAB0.984281357413146
ThurrockCON1.0853628772341
Plymouth, Sutton and DevonportCON1.0952315641041
CambridgeLAB1.1659945823983
Ilford NorthLAB1.25891567415085
EastbourneCON1.397331479746
Newcastle-under-LymeLAB1.516501299649
Brighton, KemptownCON1.5269017031013
Bolton WestCON1.6580124561655
Wolverhampton South WestLAB1.9980157934992
Hampstead and KilburnLAB2.1111381389212754
Enfield NorthLAB2.3510861387912793
HoveLAB2.37123626821446
BedfordCON2.38109780086911
DewsburyLAB2.7114512032918878
Lancaster and FleetwoodLAB3.0312651557292
Carshalton and WallingtonLIB3.17151034131903
TwickenhamCON3.25201737481731
PeterboroughCON4.0919251581113886
Cardiff NorthCON4.1821372651514
Harrow WestLAB4.7422081390011692
Kingston and SurbitonCON4.78283464703636
Westminster NorthLAB519772643124454
Southampton, ItchenCON5.1823422777435
Walsall NorthLAB5.25193730431106
TootingLAB5.312842114748632
WakefieldLAB6.08261343391726
KeighleyCON6.223053127139660
ElthamLAB6.24269341111418
Stoke-on-Trent SouthLAB6.49253937341195
Birmingham, EdgbastonLAB6.55270667654059
Halesowen and Rowley RegisCON7.0330823861779
Coventry SouthLAB7.3318877834595
HendonCON7.537241722213498
Sutton and CheamCON7.8639214313392
BurnleyLAB8.16324485805336
Bristol EastLAB8.61398051061126
Newport WestLAB8.73510358979
Southampton, TestLAB8.73381054751665
Bermondsey and Old SouthwarkLAB8.734489108086319
Bristol WestLAB8.835673120796406
Colne ValleyCON9.47536876292261
Harrow EastCON9.714757134718714
Northampton SouthCON9.75379350541261
Bolton North EastLAB10.144377111176740
HyndburnLAB10.26440097135313
Enfield, SouthgateCON10.384753107746021
Dudley NorthLAB1141554276121
Finchley and Golders GreenCON11.155662113795717
Dagenham and RainhamLAB11.5750155947932
Batley and SpenLAB1260512025714206
PendleCON12.2754531557910126
Portsmouth SouthCON12.5152415475234
Stoke-on-Trent NorthLAB12.5148365528692
Cardiff CentralLAB12.89498177092728
Reading EastCON12.91652079181398
CrawleyCON13.44652676811155
Oldham East and SaddleworthLAB13.496002144718469
Luton SouthLAB13.5357112787422163
HammersmithLAB13.596518140057487
Walsall SouthLAB14.3660071854712540
Chipping BarnetCON14.4476568143487
Birmingham, ErdingtonLAB14.79512975992470
Leeds North EastLAB15.01725089321682
SloughLAB15.273363194224606
Nottingham SouthLAB15.966936110774141
Cardiff South and PenarthLAB15.97745387001247
Birmingham, YardleyLAB16.0365952199215397
Stoke-on-Trent CentralLAB16.6651795779600
Bradford EastLAB17.1170844205634972
Bradford SouthLAB17.156450125016051
HuddersfieldLAB18.157345130655720
Hornsey and Wood GreenLAB19.141105811486428
Glasgow CentralSNP19.497662117734111
Brent NorthLAB20.74108342243711603
KensingtonCON21.147361128125451
Derby SouthLAB21.638828154616633
Luton NorthLAB22.3395042214212638
Feltham and HestonLAB23.211463196418178
Ealing NorthLAB25.4112326188026476
Cities of London and WestminsterCON26.739671140514380
Bolton South EastLAB26.8210928189127984
RochdaleLAB27.39124422542912987
Bradford WestLAB27.85114205887247452
BlackburnLAB29127603888726127
Holborn and St PancrasLAB31.0417048191522104
Poplar and LimehouseLAB33.16169244328726363
Nottingham EastLAB33.7811894131021208
Oldham West and RoytonLAB34.17147382522010482
Sheffield, Brightside and HillsboroughLAB34.4713807158392032
Hayes and HarlingtonLAB34.8515700183192619
BarkingLAB35.4815272203825110
Birmingham, Perry BarrLAB35.9414828242689440
PrestonLAB36.0512067132321165
Leyton and WansteadLAB36.6514919235828663
EdmontonLAB37.3154192748812069
Ilford SouthLAB38.1197774575725980
Leicester EastLAB38.1818352217053353
Leicester SouthLAB38.84178653315215287
Brent CentralLAB41.7819649291989549
Birmingham, Hall GreenLAB42.12198185399034172
Blackley and BroughtonLAB45.4716874185381664
Bethnal Green and BowLAB45.95243174440920092
West HamLAB53.01279864244814462
TottenhamLAB55.3723564246441080
WalthamstowLAB55.523195282075012
Birmingham, Hodge HillLAB56.93233626341740055
Manchester, GortonLAB57.3124079320107931
Birmingham, LadywoodLAB60.89218684462622758
East HamLAB65.5342525600821756

Note! The population data is at best an estimate. Religious affiliation is only collected in the census every 10 years; 2011 is the most current. The data provides a projection; one must factor in eligibility, age and migration for a better fit. The numbers stated are intended to provide a starting point. Furthermore, some details have changed since 2015 due to by-elections.

It is beyond the remit of this report to suggest what should Muslims do other than the fact they have the power to effect change for the betterment of Muslims and society at large.

Bar Northern Ireland, there are 120 constituencies where Muslims numbers are higher than the electoral majority with which a candidate won. 85 of these constituencies are held by Labour, 33 by Conservatives and two by others.

55 of the 120 are marginal seats in that the majority vote was less than  10 percent. 24 of these are held by the Conservatives and 29 by Labour.  If all else remains the same, this is significant as a swing of so many seats can lead to a hung parliament. The other two marginal seats are held by the SNP and the Liberal Democrats respectively.

A swing against the governing party in a marginal seat is not surprising. But, it can happen in safe seats also, as was seen in the wake of major events in the past.

It should be noted that the list focuses on the impact of Muslims unilaterally. However, in practice, even in small numbers, when working in partnership with others, Muslims can still make a difference. In any event, while staying within the boundaries set by Islam, if one has the ability do some good for the Muslims and one’s fellow neighbours irrespective of colour or creed, they should do so.

———

Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
4 Ramadhan 1438
30 May 2017

Further Reading

British Election Study (2015). 2015 Constituency Results with Census and Candidate Data. Available at: http://www.britishelectionstudy.com/data-object/2015-bes-constituency-results-with-census-and-candidate-data/

Clements, B (2015). The 2015 General Election: Religious Affiliation and Party Vote Share Across Constituencies. Available at:
http://www.brin.ac.uk/2015/the-2015-general-election-religious-affiliation-and-party-vote-share-across-constituencies

Nawhami, M. S. R (2013). London – Muslim Population 2011. Nawhami Bulletin. Available at: http://nawhami.com/130102501

 

Citekey: 173005501

Schools in London (July, 2013)

[This report is part of the London (UloomLon) Project which is an initiative to review resources available in Greater London for Muslims. This report is released under the creative common licence with added stipulations mentioned in the sharing policySaif]

This report reviews Islamic primary, secondary schools and sixth-forms (ages 5-19) in Greater London. It reviews (1) how many institutes there are and their capacity, (2) where they are, and (3) how much they charge. What constitutes an Islamic school is a subject of another article. Suffices it to say in this report it refers to those institutes which declared to the Department of Education (DfE) as having a Muslim characteristic.1 The following is the summary of the findings:

  1. There are 51 institutes which run 69 schools: 29 primaries, 33 secondary schools (23 single secondary schools, 5 mixed each with its separate sections for boys and girls) and 7 sixth-forms
  2. There is only one boarding school
  3. The institutes in aggregate have a capacity of 7248 pupils; facilities for 2.6% of the Muslim population of London aged 5-19
  4. School distribution correlate closely with the Muslim population
  5. Schools on average (median) charge £2900, £2700 and £2400 for primary, secondary and sixth-form respectively

How many are there

130922001_Islamic_schools_in_greater_london_2013-01

According to EduBase (July, 2013), there are 188 institutes in the UK which have a registered religious characteristic of Muslim. 57 are in Greater London of which 6 are now defunct and 51 are still active. The EduBase database is maintained by the Department for Education (DfE). Although it claims to be the most up to date source, its list is not comprehensive as there are notable omissions and the data is not entirely accurate. The purpose of this report is to give a snapshot of the provision for compulsory schooling for Muslims in Greater London. To this end this list should suffice; primary, secondary and sixth-forms are reviewed, however, colleges and higher education centres are excluded. The sample chosen are those institutes that are registered with the DfE and have declared a Muslim religious characteristic although it is recognised that there are many Islamic schools which opt not to register or declare their religious characteristic.

In the UK, primary (ages 4-11) and secondary (aged 11-16) education is mandatory whilst post 16 studies are optional. These 51 institutes provide one, some or all the stages of education. The breakdown is as follows:

  1. 22 are exclusively primary
  2. 17 are exclusively secondary
  3. 4 are both primary and secondary
  4. 4 are secondary with sixth-form
  5. 3 are primary, secondary with a sixth-form

There are 29 primary schools. As rules of purdah (covering) takes effect after puberty, most of the primaries (26) are mixed with boys and girls in one class. However, as the final two years are bordering on puberty, some parents opt for a single sex primary. Hence, from the list, two primaries are girls only and one boys only. Notably, all the single-sex primaries are feeder schools to their secondary. As most primaries do not cater for this need some secondary schools have opted to offer year 6 (ages 10) also.

There are 28 secondary schools at least on paper; 12 for boys, 11 for girls and 5 are mixed. None of the schools at this stage really have mixed lessons; rather classes for boys and girls are in different classrooms in separated closed off sections or buildings. So in practice, there are 33 secondary schools; 17 are for boys and 16 are for girls.

There are 7 sixth-forms, most of which rely on retaining their existing students from their own secondary, and are relatively small in size. 4 are for boys, 2 are for girls and 1 is mixed (without provision for separate classes). The sizes are significantly small although there are separate institutes which are filling the void.

The capacity of the schools is stated to be 7248 pupils. Considering that there are 278824 Muslims aged between 5-19 in Greater London2, this is significantly low as it only makes provision for only 2.6% of the population. There are many Islamic schools which are oversubscribed; nevertheless, there are those which are struggling to fill seats. The average (median) school capacity is 116 (SD 121) pupils with the upper boundary at 406. The largest is 508 albeit it is a Voluntary Aided school. There are many factors which have an impact amongst which is that many are new schools and still improving as well as the locations (many are clustered near each other). Furthermore, the price is also a factor especially considering the fact that Muslims in London have larger families and live in deprived areas.

Where are they

The spread of the schools correlates closely with the distribution of the Muslims around London. Naturally, Tower Hamlets and Newham being the populous Muslim boroughs3, have the highest number of institutes with 11 and 8 respectively. Brent has five institutes, Hackney has four, Lambeth and Redbridge have three each, Ealing, Waltham Forest and Wandsworth have two each. Barking, Barnet, Bromley, Croydon, Hammersmith, Haringey, Lewisham and Merton have one each. The remaining boroughs have no Muslim schools.

In East London, Tower Hamlets has a relatively wider range with five primaries, five boy secondary schools, one girl’s secondary school. Newham is still developing in comparison; other than three schools around the Forest Gate area, most of the schools are significantly small and newly starting. Newham has three girls secondary schools, two boy’s secondary and four primary schools. Newham has no sixth-form whilst Tower Hamlets has one sixth-form for boys and one for girls. The third largest Muslim borough, Redbridge, is also still developing with only three primary schools despite having a sizable Muslim population. Many young Muslim couples with growing families have moved to Barking and Dagenham but have no primaries in the borough and resort to neighbouring Redbridge or further although they do have one secondary girls school.

In West London, Brent has the most schools with five institutes covering all the tiers; three primary schools for boys and girls, two secondary schools for boys and two for girls. The neighbouring Ealing also has two institutes which cover all the tiers including two sixth-forms. Hammersmith has one institute which has one mixed primary and a girl’s secondary. Westminster despite having a sizable Muslim population has no Muslim schools and they seem to rely on the neighbouring boroughs.

In North London, Barnet has one institute which has one mixed primary and a girl’s secondary school with a sixth-form. Haringey has only one primary school. Waltham Forest despite it relatively large Muslim population has only one primary school and one boy’s secondary. In contrast, Hackney despite its smaller Muslim population has a good complement of school albeit mostly concentrated around the Stamford Hill area. It has four institutes which run two primaries (one of which is only for girls), one girl’s secondary with a sixth-form and two boy’s secondary school one of which starts from year six.

In South London, there are 9 institutes which are scattered far apart. Bromley has a boy’s boarding school with a secondary and sixth-form although the local Muslim community is very small. Its neighbouring borough of Lewisham has one primary. The remain are in the direct south with one institute in Croydon running a primary and boy’s secondary school and three in Lambeth, all of which are primaries from which two are maintained or Voluntary Aided (VA). Merton has one primary school. Wandworth has two institutes, one of which is VA running a primary whilst the other institute runs a primary and a secondary with separate facilities for boys and girls.

How much do they charge

Primary Secondary Sixth-Form
Min £1320 £1600 £2000
Lower Quartile (Q1) £2250 £2450 £2215
Median £2900 £2700 £2400
Upper Quartile (Q3) £3180 £3270 £2750
Upper Boundry £4578 £4500 £3552
Max £7800 £6700 £4000

The average median fees charged by the institutes are between £2400 and £2900 per annum4. Primary schools are more expensive with a median of £2900 than secondary schools with the lower quartile at £2250 and the upper quartile at £3180 (interquartile range at £930). Although the most expensive fee is £7800, it is never really charged and discount is given. In practice no primary school charges beyond £4575. The lowest fee for a primary school (other than the free schools partially or fully funded by the government) is £1320 but that also is an exception. The secondary schools are slightly a bit more consistent; their fees are on the average median of £2700 with the lower quartile at £2450 and the upper quartile at £3270 (a spread of £820). Very few secondary schools charge below £2000 and those that do are still in the development phase (the lowest recorded is £1600). The upper boundary is at £4500 with outliers at £6700. The sixth-form prices are generally less than their secondary counterpart but not by much as discounts are given to retain their students. The education at that level is optional and the subjects are limited, hence, the numbers currently at that point are very low to non-existent. The median fees are £2400 with the lower quartile at £2,215 and the upper quartile at £2,750. The lowest charged is £2000 whilst the highest is £4000.

_________________________________

Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
16 Dhul Qa’dah 1434 AH
22 September 2013 CE

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1. Technically, such institutions will have a commitment of spending 20% of the curriculum time to teaching topics related on Islam.

2. Census, 2011

3. Nawhami, Muhammad Saifur Rahman. 2013. London – Muslim Population 2011. London, UK; Uloom. Available online: http://nawhami.com/bulletin/130102001

4. Calls were made to all the schools on July to enquire about their fees for September, 2013

Cite key: 130922501

HMC eateries in London (2007-2013)

[This report is part of the London (UloomLon) Project which is an initiative to review resources available in Greater London for Muslims. This report is released under the creative common licence with added stipulations mentioned in the sharing policySaif]

This report is aimed at reviewing halal eateries (restaurants and takeaways) in Greater London which are monitored by an independent body. The primary focus is on the reliability of independent outlets selling cooked food to the consumers directly. At present monitoring of such outlets in London is done predominantly by the Halal Monitoring Committee (HMC). The outlets are highlighted in the map above and the current list in the inspectorate’s sites.1

Monitoring Halal

In London there are three strategies adopted in monitoring halal eateries; (1) self, (2) supplier, and (3) vendor regulation.

(1) The first strategy is self-regulation in which the eatery declares itself halal or presents a certificate of halal from its supplier. This method relies on the consumer’s personal judgment and is criticised for having a self-serving bias. (2) The second strategy is the regulation of the primary sector (abattoirs) or secondary sector (butchers) whilst binding the tertiary sector (eateries) to one of these regulated suppliers. In this method the first two sectors are inspected but it trusts the eatery to regulate itself in not buying from elsewhere. This method is viable for centralised large franchises with a single supplier but is problematic for medium to small firms as it suffers from the similar impediments of the first strategy. (3) The third strategy is the independent inspection of the eateries itself. This method is robust but is time consuming, costly and requires inspection of all three sectors simultaneously.

In terms of eateries, the vast majority in Greater London adopt the first strategy of self-certification in which the vendors rely on their own personal reputation and local standing. This is difficult to quantify and harder to discern for those not of the locality as such it will not be covered in this report at present2.

As for regulation by an independent body, there are predominantly two main organisations operating in Greater London; HFA (Halal Food Authority) and HMC (Halal Monitoring Committee)3. It is beyond the scope of this report to discuss the criteria for halal or the efficacy of the methods used by these organisations4. Suffice it to say that HFA uses the second strategy and does not certify eateries in London except for one corporate franchise which is relatively static. As such not subject to this review.

HMC uses the third strategy and monitors on a store by store basis irrespective of franchise. Due to the current nature of the market and the size of the business, the eateries are volatile and quick to change policies, suppliers, or even have multiple suppliers. This in turn requires regular review and frequent checks of the premises which is a forte of HMC5.

The spread

HMC was established in 2003 with its primary base in Leicester. In London, eateries were first certified between 2006- 2007 with there being 22 inspected eateries in May 2007; 7 in Newham, 7 in Whitechapel, 3 in Waltham Forest, 3 in Wandsworth, 1 in Hackney and 1 in Lambeth. Since then it has spread throughout London especially in areas with a large Muslim population understandably. Hence, 62% of eateries in 2013 (avg. 64% throughout the years) are in the four most Muslim populated boroughs in East London6; Newham has 49 (30%), Tower Hamlet has 23 (14%), Redbridge has 17 (10%) and Waltham Forest has 12 (7%). The proportion has remained similar throughout. Wandsworth, Hackney, and Ealing also have a sizable number with 10 (6%), 9 (5.5%) and 8 (4.9%) respectively.

In the southwest, most of the eateries are in Tooting road (SW17) and London Road (SW16) which interlink and connect the borders of Wandsworth, Lambeth, and Croydon. In Newham, although scattered throughout most can be found in the parallel roads that are Upton Lane, Green Street, Katherine Road, and High Street North as well as the roads that run through these namely Plashet Grove and Romford Road. Similarly, In Tower Hamlet, there is a concentration of HMC certified Eateries around East London and Brick Lane Mosque. In Redbridge, in addition to Goodmayes Road, the A123 stretch which goes from Gants Hill through Cranbrook Road to Ilford Lane has rows of HMC certified eateries. In Waltham Forest, most are on the long stretch of Leyton High Road which connects to Hoe Street via Leabridge Road. See the map above for the other small clusters.

There is no significant difference between the proportional representation of the boroughs between the years rather the year on year growth is strongly correlated albeit northwest London did not have a sizable amount of eateries until 2010. Most regions of London since 2010 are growing at an equal rate according to their respective sizes.

The growth

Currently, there are 164 eateries in Greater London which are inspected by HMC. There has been growth overall between the years with an increase of 15, 12, 33, 31, 32 and 19 eateries respectively. However, retention is a concern. Although the number of new eateries since 2010 has been above 40 each year, proportionally it has declined. Conversely, the decline of eateries has remained proportionally steady at 19 percent since 2010 which translates into steadily increased decline but stagnant proportional growth.

130508001_HMC_Eateries_in_London_2007_2013

The reason for removal from the list by HMC can be many. In the current economic climate, the risk of a new business (especially eateries) collapsing is high and eateries are deemed a luxury. Amongst current eateries being inspected 42% have been with the organisation for less than two years. This is, in fact, the case for many which had been listed in the dataset as they are longer in operation. HMC does not state the reason for the removal of an eatery in its site. Such as whether or not the vendor opted out if they were removed due to an infringement, non-payment of membership dues, change in management, or closure of business. Nevertheless, it still a growing organisation and has gained some traction in the last few years. It covers all regions except for the south-east of London.

It should be noted that the data is recorded of those eateries that were listed on the 5th of May of each of the years; those that may have been certified or removed in between were not included.

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Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
24 Jumada II 1434
6 May 2013

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1. The current site since 2012 is http://www.halalhmc.org. Before 2012, the site was in http://www.halalmc.net

1. Some local masajid or institutions may maintain their own register and reviews of the eateries of their respective localities. Although the criteria for halal and efficacy may differ between these independent local registers, it nonetheless may provide evaluation of those who opted not to be voluntarily regulated by an organisation.

3. Lever, J, Bellacasa, M. P, Mielle, M, & Higgin, M. (2010) From the Slaughterhouse to the Consumer: Transparency and Information in the Distribution of Halal and Kosher Meat. Dialrel Reports No. 4.3.. Cardiff; University of Cardiff. p. 18. Available online at http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/cplan/sites/default/files/Dialrel_report_43.pdf

4. Amongst few points of contention, there is a significant debate between HFA and HMC over permitting stunned chickens which the former approves and latter disapproves. See their respective sites for their current policies.

5. Nawhami, MSR (2013, Feb 23) Ml. Dudhwala [current chairman of HMC]: 250 people are employed by #HMC who try to check 4 times a week [Twitter post]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/Nawhami/status/305421900878839808

6. Nawhami, MSR (2013) Muslims in London, March 2011. The Nawhami Bulletin. Uloom. Report: 130508501 Available online http://nawhami.com/bulletin/130508501

[Cite key: 130506501]

London – Muslim Population 2011

Historically, London had a concentration of Muslim. This took a sharp rise in the 1960s with large immigration from the commonwealth particularly from South Asia who mostly Muslim. London became the home of many that arrived. The actual number is not known as religion was not systematically recorded nationally until 2001. The 2001 census included an optional choice of stating one’s religious affiliation. The census gives a snapshot of the state of the country in a given day which in the UK is conducted every 10 years. The last census day for England and Wales was 27 March 2011.

THE REGION

Population of Muslims in England and Wales, March 2011

The population of the England and Wales was 56,075,912 of which 2,706,066 affiliated themselves to Islam which accounts for 4.8% of the population. This is an increase of 3.9 percent since 2001. There are Muslims in all regions of England and Wales. Wales has 45950 (1.7%) Muslims, North East have 46764 (1.7%), South West have 51228 (1.9%), East Midlands have 140649 (5.2%), East have 148341 (5.5%), South East have 201651 (7.5%), Yorkshire and the Humber have 326050 (12%), North West have 356,458 (13.2%), and the West Midlands have 376,152 (13.9%). The largest number of Muslims is in London.

37.4% percent of the Muslim population of England and Wales live in London. The population of London is 8,173,941 of which 1,012,823 declared themselves as Muslim. Hence, 12.4% of the city are adherents of Islam. This is an increase of 3.9% since 2001 of London as a whole. In terms of the Muslim population it has increased 67% within London from 607083 to 1012823; a change of 405,740. This is high compared to the London’s general population growth of 14 percent. However, compared to the Muslims in the other regions it is the slowest as they saw increases between 72 to 111 percent. Overall, the Muslims in London represent 1.8% of the population (a rise of 0.6% in the past decade).

THE CITY

Population of Muslims in England and Wales, March 2011

London has 33 boroughs and has the River Thames running through the middle and then veering south towards Richmond and Kingston Upon Thames with only a few free accessible crossings2.

South London

81% of the Muslims live north of the river. Most boroughs directly south of a free crossing come above the 25th percentile such as Greenwich (1.7%), Lewisham (1.8%), Southwark (2.4%), and Wandsworth (2.4%). Richmond and Kingston are below the 25th percentile despite being directly south of a free crossing. Good links to Kingston is primarily through Richmond and Merton from the north. Richmond properties on average are more expensive3 than the neighbouring boroughs with Merton (1.6%) having cheaper flats and Hounslow and Ealing being comparatively cheaper in general with the M4 in between leading to Heathrow. Hence, Muslims seem to prefer Ealing over the neighbouring southern boroughs as it provides the easiest access to the North via the M1, the East via the A406 and the West through the M4.

Croydon is the only borough south of the river above the 50th percentile (2.9%). Croydon serves a major transport corridor especially through the A23 and A22 to the south of England as well as linking the south of the city. Consequently, due to significant strategic value and economic prospects, there is an increased Muslim concentration. Additionally, a further impetus comes due to the Qadiyanis being headquartered in the region.

East London

The median number of Muslims in the boroughs of London is 25,520 with the lower quartile at 16,262 and the upper quartile at 36,744. The lowest number is in the City of London with only 409 Muslims; 5.5% of the borough and 0.04% of the Muslims in London. The highest datum is 67,467. Redbridge, Tower Hamlet, and Newham are outliers with a Muslim population of 64999, 87696, and 98456 respectively. Redbridge represents 6.4%, Tower Hamlet 8.7%, and Newham 9.7% of the Muslims in London. Thus these three boroughs represent 24.8% of the Muslims in London.

Tower Hamlets and Newham have been the home of many Muslims for more than a century with the largest influx in the 1960s. Hence, they are the largest Muslim boroughs in the UK.

Although in terms of number Newham has the largest Muslim population, Tower Hamlet proportionally is higher. 23.3% of Redbridge, 32% of Newham and 34.5% of Tower Hamlet are Muslim. In the past decade, Tower Hamlet saw a 1.9% decrease in the proportion of Muslims in the borough despite an increase of 16307 (22.8%, 0.4% higher the Tower Hamlet’s average growth). The slow growth could be due to increase in flat prices and large family sizes amongst Muslim in Tower Hamlet. Larger and wealthier families of the borough seem to have moved to Redbridge whilst younger couples and family have moved to the more affordable Borough of Barking and Dagenham. The Muslim population of Redbridge grew by 128% (36512) and Barking and Dagenham by 257% (18372). Newham had a growth of 66% (39163) since 2001 significantly higher than the borough growth of 26.3%.

West London

In the north-west of London, the largest concentration of Muslims is in Brent (5.7%), Ealing (5.3%) and Westminster (4%) which combined account for 14.9% of the Muslims in London and are above the 75th percentile. These boroughs have grown 79.6% on average. The boroughs surrounding these three are above the 50th percentile with the average borough having 31600 (SD 4386) or 3.1%. The exception is south of the river as mentioned before and the boroughs of Kensington & Chelsea as well as Hammersmith & Fulham. These have 15812 (1.6%) and 18242 (1.8%) Muslims respectively. Kensington & Chelsea has one of the highest property prices in the country. The same is for Camden (2.6%) and the City (0.4%). As such the average growth in these boroughs is 12%. Furthermore, Hammersmith & Fulham (1.8%) is also amongst the top five expensive areas although outside the congestion charge zone.

In the west, the largest growth is found in Harrow and Hillingdon with increases of 100.3% (14966) and 158.2% (17807) respectively. Correspondingly, in the east, the largest growth is found in Havering with an increase of 163% (3029) after Redbridge and Barking & Dagenham. Whether the trend will continue in the far east of the borough is still tentative as many residents are opting for Grays to the very far East, outside London, skipping Havering.

North London

North London accounted for 4.8% (SD 1%) of the Muslims in London. Enfield had 52141 (5.1%), Waltham Forest had 56541 (5.6%) and Barnet had 36744 (3.6%) Muslims. In term terms of the proportion of the borough, they represented 16.7%, 21.9%, and 10.3% respectively. All three boroughs are above the 75th percentile. The average increase is 86.6% with the fastest growth in Enfield at 98.2%. Haringey (3.4%) and Hackney (3.6%) are above the 50th percentile although they are amongst the slowest growing.

SUMMARY

12.4% of London (4.8% of the population) are Muslims. This represents 37.4% of the Muslims in England and Wales. The majority (81%) of the Muslims in London live north of the River Thames with the outer regions of the city growing at fast a pace. Amongst these most are concentrated in East of London particularly Redbridge, Tower Hamlet, and Newham with the Muslims spreading East towards Barking & Dagenham and Havering. In the west of London Muslims are the largest in Brent and Ealing with the Muslims spreading towards Hillingdon and Harrow. In the north of London such as Waltham Forest and Enfield are also on the rise partly from first generation migrants and influx from Hackney and Haringey amongst others. The strongest concentration in the south of the river is in Croydon. Most of the remaining boroughs with sizeable Muslim directly south of the River with easy access from the North.

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Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
19 Safar 1434
2 January 2013

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1. The data states what the individuals perceive themselves to be rather than their actual belief or practice. It makes no distinction between Sunni, Shia, Qadiyani etcetera. The number may be higher or lower depending on the inclusion of illegal immigrants or the exclusion temporary residence. See Measuring religion by the ONS

2. To the east, there is Dartford, Blackwall, and Rotherhithe tunnel. The first has a toll whilst the latter two are only crossable with a car. There is also the Woolwich ferry and foot tunnel, however, these are somewhat slow and lengthy. In the center of London there are numerous bridges, however, only Tower bridge is outside of the congestion charge zone albeit on the border.

3. See UK House Prices by BBC

Cite Key:  130102501

Newham – Local Election 2010

The local council and mayor have a direct impact on the day to day life of Muslims. Amongst other things, they have oversight on education, libraries, social services, local planning, consumer protection, licensing, and cemeteries.

Since its inception, the council for the London borough of Newham has been under Labour control. As of 2 May 2002, the council has been led by a directly elected local mayor. The 2010 local election was on the 6 May. The next election is in 2014.

How they voted

From the 60 seats, Labour won all 60 seats in the council. Overall, 275960 people voted; 51% of the electorate. 65% voted for Labour, 19% for the conservatives, 8% for the Christian Alliance, 3% for the Liberal Democrats, 3% for the Respect Party and 2% for independent candidates. Labour gained 6 seats from the Christian Alliance (3 seats) and Respect (3 seats).

Labour, Conservatives, and the Christian Alliance contested all the wards whilst the Liberal Democrats contested 7 wards, Respect contested 5 wards, and the Greens contested Forest Gate North. Only 6 of the wards were not contested by independent candidates (Beckton, Canning Town South, Custom House, East Ham North, East Ham South, Green Street West, Royal Docks and Stratford).

Alternative votes

As with many deprived areas, the resident mostly favour leftist parties or more specifically Labour (Avg, 21.8% per ward, SD 2.4%). In Newham dissatisfied voters do not naturally vote Liberal democrat (Avg. 5.1% per ward, SD 1.5%) although they may be gaining some traction with the Hindus. Christian dissatisfied voters seem to have chosen the Christian Alliance (Avg. 2.8% per ward, SD 2%) whilst Muslims have chosen the Respect party (Avg. 5.2% per ward, SD 1.9%). The conservative attempted to maximise their votes also by selecting candidates representative of the local voters (Avg. 6.3% per ward, SD 2.1%).

Newham Local Election 2010 - Minor Parties (121216002)

 

Canning Town South (27%), and North (15%), Custom House (18%) have the strongest Christian Alliance support whilst Green Street East (13%). and West (24%), Little Ilford (14%), and Plaistow North (11%) have the strongest Respect support. The Christian Alliance have a concentration in the south-west region of Newham whilst Respect on the central and East of Newham. The Greens made some gains in Forest Gate North (6% with one candidate). The Liberal democrat are disparate with some gains in Wall End (11%), Beckton (12%), East Ham North (15%) and Plaistow North (9%). The Conservatives have performed quite evenly in all the boroughs with no significant gains except in Royal Docks (37%).

Muslim candidates

According to the 2001 census, Muslims represented 24.3% of Newham’s population. This no doubt has increased as is indicative in the 2011 census. Out of the 220 candidates who run for office approximately 48 were Muslims. That is 21.8% a few percentiles below the representative population. Furthermore, they are mostly concentrated around the North East of Newham namely Little Ilford, Manor Park, East Ham North, Forest Gate North and South, Green Street East and West, Boleyn and Plaistow North which contains 33.3%, 36.2%, 43.9%, 17.8%, 28.4%, 41.8%, and 47.3% of Muslim respectively. This is 64.5% of the Muslims in and 15.6% of Newham.

Although, Beckton (18.5%) has been addressed adequately but surprising Labour neglected Wall End (26.9%) and East Ham Central (31.8%). The conservatives made a concerted effort with two Muslim candidates at East Ham central but they left Wall End with the Liberal Democrats beating two of the conservative candidates with a Muslim candidate. These places represent above 9766 (16%) Muslim. Since there is one councilor to every 4065 (usually elected with 3000) there is an argument for Muslim representation especially in East Ham Central which has above 3872 Muslims.

The West of Newham and East Ham South has been abandoned by the major parties with the exception only one Muslim candidate running for the conservatives in Canning Town South (8.6%); his result (721) was similar to the other conservatives (794 and 858) and one CPA candidate (892). Canning Town South was Alan Craig’s (CPA leader) ward.

In 2001 there was 11268 in what was once the county borough of West Ham minus Green Street West, Plaistow North. This is 5% of Newham overall and 19% of the Muslims in Newham.

Parties and nominees

As the Muslims represent more than 24.3% of Newham, 15 of the 60 elected candidates should be Muslim to be broadly representative. The major parties, namely Labour and Conservative, should have at the least 15 Muslim nominees altogether, spread across the wards containing a significant amount of Muslim. Stratford, Wall End and East Ham Central

Labour had 12 Muslim nominees which accounted for 20% of their total candidates. This was 4% below the Muslim representation. Although, all got elected the spread was not optimal as stated above. All the other parties had good representation with the exception of Greens and CPA which had none. The conservative had 19 (32.2%), Liberal Democrats had 3 (30%), Respect had 8 (67.7%) Muslim nominees and there was 6 (31.6%) independent Muslim candidates.

There is one candidate allocated for every 1.6% of Newham. Alternatively, there is be one candidate for every 33.3% of the ward. Accordingly, based on the 2001 census, there should one candidate every 6.7% of Muslims. Ideally, there should be at least one elected representatives in the following 14 wards; Beckton, Boleyn, East Ham Central, East Ham North, Forest Gate North, Forest Gate South, Green Street East, Green Street West, Little Ilford, Manor Park, Plaistow North, Stratford and New Town, Wall End. Plaistow South and West Ham should arguably also have an elected representative. An argument also can be made for additional elected representatives for Green Street East, West, and Newham North. Furthermore, as the West of Newham (the old county borough of West Ham region) should have at least 3 Muslim nominees as it contains 19% of the Muslims.

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Muhammad Saifur Rahman Nawhami
11 Safar 1434 (After Isha)
25 December 2012

Citation key: 121225501